Gum surgery is a type of treatment that is usually applied as a measure to treat a periodontal disease.
This pathology, which affects many people from middle age, due to different factors, has a bacterial origin. It begins with the redness and inflammation of the soft tissue of the gums. If not fought, it evolves into chronic infection and leads to decreased bone mass, weakness of the teeth and subsequent loss. Periodontal disease may be due to poor mouth care, but it is also linked to the consumption of certain substances, such as alcohol or tobacco or medication intake. Likewise, there is a congenital predisposition to suffer it, even when proper oral hygiene is maintained.
In any case, gum surgery is considered an auxiliary therapy to address this disease, which in its early stages is treated by removing plaque and with drugs. When these techniques are insufficient, and according to the degree of gum deterioration, it will be necessary to act on the inflamed tissue bags to eliminate the affected parts. Among the different types of treatment, the following should be mentioned:
- Reduction of the gingival flap: The gums are retracted and the bacteria are removed.
- Regeneration: In addition to eliminating the infected surface, regenerative elements are applied to stimulate the recovery of the gums and the tissue to wrap the teeth again correctly.
- Crown extension: Any excessive growth of the periodontal tissue is removed to improve the visibility of the teeth, and by extension, the oral aesthetics.
- Grafts: Soft tissue from other parts of the mouth is added to reconstruct the damaged parts of the gum and promote the stability of the parts it wraps around. It also has positive aesthetic effects.
It should be noted that gum surgery is also being used as part of the smile design treatments, with the purpose of improving the appearance of the gums and contributing to an optimal appearance of the whole mouth. Another area in which this type of surgery is addressed is that of dental implantology, in cases where it is necessary to apply bone regeneration prior to implant placement. It is proven that gum surgery is an effective method to eliminate bacterial plaque when other less invasive procedures have not worked. However, we must also take into account some drawbacks, such as the possibility of increasing caries propensity and the greater dental sensitivity of patients.